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Last update to this page: 9Aug07
The Saharan language was the language of the peoples living in the Sahara during the last Ice Age, who had created the first true civilization on earth, possibly centered on lake Chad. As a result of deglaciation, starting about 16,000 bce., resulting in ever expanding desertification, these tribes were forced to flee for their lives, creating an exodus culminating between 7,000 and 3,500 bce (see Climate). These refugees created four main secondary civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley and Anatolia.
Portions of the Saharan language are still spoken as Dravidian in India (170 million speakers), as Ainu on the island of Hokkaido (18,000 speakers in 2005) and as Basque in Euskadi, Spain (800,000 speakers in 2005). Basque is likely the closest resembling the original language of the exodus.
The people of the exodus from the Sahara brought with them a matrilineal organized society, the nature based Goddess religion and the first highly developed language, maintained by very strong oral traditions.
As a result of several major advances in a number of fields such as agriculture, metallurgy, domestication of the horse and camel, astronomy etc. the female-based religion was weakened and male domination arrived ca 3,000 bce. in Egypt, Mesopotamia and Anatolia, and about 1,500 bce. in India. The newcomers brought along learned priesthoods who proceeded to invert all aspects of the old religion, society, language, legends etc. A new language was invented for each large area and placed under the control of a king. Examples are, Sumerian and Akadian in Mesopotamia, Old Egyptian in Egypt, Sanskrit and Hindi in India, Hebrew in Palestine, Hittite and Luvian in Anatolia etc. All these were the product of formulaic distortion and scholarly manipulation of the original Saharan language. The Bible repeats the command to distort the original language in Genesis 11:7.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 - November 15, 1630) was a German Lutheran mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and a key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution. He is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy.
Before Kepler, planets' paths were computed by combinations of the circular motions of the celestial orbs. After Kepler, astronomers shifted their attention from orbs to orbits-paths that could be represented mathematically as an ellipse. Kepler's laws also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation.
During his career Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a Graz seminary school, an assistant to Tycho Brahe, the court mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II, a mathematics teacher in Linz, Austria, and an adviser to General Wallenstein. He also did fundamental work in the field of optics and helped to legitimize the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei.
Kepler lived in an era when there was no clear distinction between astronomy and astrology, but there was a strong division between astronomy (a branch of mathematics within the liberal arts) and physics (a branch of the more prestigious discipline of philosophy). Kepler also incorporated religious arguments and reasoning into his work, motivated by the religious conviction that God had created the world according to an intelligible plan which was accessible through the natural light of reason. Kepler described his new astronomy as "celestial physics," as "an excursion into Aristotle's Metaphysics," and as "a supplement to Aristotle's On the Heavens," transforming the ancient tradition of physical cosmology by treating astronomy as part of a universal mathematical physics.
I understand that Genesis is _denying, refuting and challenging_ the Mesopotamian myths' explanation of Who, What, Why, Where, When and How man came to made, what his purpose on earth is, and why he does not possess immortality. I understand that the Hebrews accomplished these denials or challenges by taking motifs and concepts from a variety of contradicting myths and giving them "new twists," changed the names of the characters, the locations, and sequences of events. It is my understanding that the Hebrews were deliberately CHANGING _or_ RECASTING the earlier myths and their motifs IN ORDER TO REFUTE, DENY, AND CHALLENGE THEM, hence the "reason why" there are _no_ individuals called Adam, Eve, the Serpent, Yahweh, Noah, Shem, Japheth and Ham appearing in _any_ of the Mesopotamian pre-biblical myths. This understanding explains why there appear to be "echoes" or "parallels" or "similarities" between Genesis and the Mesopotamian concepts and motifs regarding man's creation. I do _not_ understand that the Hebrews are "copying" the Mesopotamian myths, they are _recasting them_ in order to _refute and deny them_ regarding why, when, where and how man came to be made, placed in a god's garden, denied immortality and his destruction sought in a Flood. These "recastings" are accomplished primarily via the employment of "inversions" which, in effect, present a 180 degree counter-argument to the earlier mythic concepts of the Mesopotamians, as was penetratingly noted by the late Joseph Campbell famed in his four volume series of books exploring the mythologies of the world , ancient and modern, called The Masks of God (1959-1968).
The Mesopotamians saw the world being created for the benefit of the gods, not man. Genesis refutes this notion, God made the world for man's benefit. I understand that the Hebrews, _employing INVERSIONS_, are recasting many of the Mesopotamian motifs and concepts by 180 degrees, turning them upside down and on their ear.
This X demo illustrates one way to progressively enhance a page.
Nyland (2001) proposed that all highly developed languages on earth (except possibly Chinese) might have been developed from the original Saharan language, which in itself was also scholarly enhanced from the Neolithic substratum.
Based on measurements of the aphelion and perihelion of the Earth and Mars, he [Johannes Kepler] created a formula in which a planet's rate of motion is inversely proportional to its distance from the Sun.
This website [bibleorigins.net] is an attempt to identify the pre-biblical origins of concepts appearing in both the Old and New Testaments from a secular and anthropological point of view.